It has been stated that “healthcare information systems and healthcare processes are closely entwined with one another. Health care processes require the use of data and information and they also produce or create information” (Wager et al, 2009, p.65)
Three basic components of system are explained by Bagad (2010) as input, process/transformation and output. In information system inputs are data that are going to be transformed. The process component of an information system transforms input into an output. Output is considered to be the final product of a system. In case of an information system, an output would be obtaining necessary information in a desired format (Currie, 2009).
Explanations of all of the components of information system are offered by Stair et al (2008) in the following manner:
|Components of information system||Definitions|
|Data||Input the system takes to produce information|
|Hardware||A computer and its peripheral equipment: input, output and storage devices; hardware also includes data communication equipment|
|Software||Sets of instructions that tell the computer how to take data in, how to process it, how to display information, and how to store data and information|
|Telecommunications||Hardware and software that facilitates fast transmission and reception of text, pictures, sound, and animation in the form of electronic data|
|People||Information systems professionals and users who analyse organisational information needs, design and construct information systems, write computer programs, operate the hardware, and maintain software|
|Procedures||Rules for achieving optimal and secure operations in data processing; procedures include priorities in dispensing software applications and security measures|
Source: Stair, R.M, Reynolds, G & Reynolds, G.W. (2008) “Fundamentals of Information Systems” fifth edition, Cengage Learning p.102
Moreover, Hoyt et al (2008) and Carter (2010), discuss the role of intranet, i.e. a local communications network within organisation that is implemented on the basis of World Wide Web software in terms of effectively sharing information and knowledge within organisations. As Hoyt et al (2008) argue the advantages of intranet include information sharing in a fast manner, facilitating communication between members of the organisation in a cost-effective way.
- Bagad, V.S. (2010) “Management Information Systems” John Wiley & Sons
- Carter, J.H. (2010) “Electronic health records: a guide for clinicians and administrators” ACP Press
- Currie, W. (2009) “Integrating healthcare” in Integrating Healthcare with Information and Communications Technology” Radcliffe Publishing. Editors, Currie, W & Finnegan, D.
- Hoyt, R.E., Sutton, M. & Oshinashi, A. (2008) “Medical Informatics: Practical Guide for the Healthcare Professional” Lulu
- Morley, D. & Parker, C. (2010) “Understanding Computers: Today and Tomorrow, Comprehensive” Cengage Learning
- Wager, K.A., Lee, F.W & Glaser, J.P. (2009) “Health Care Information Systems: A Practical Approach for Health Care Management”. Second editon, John Wiley & Sons