Research Design

Research design can be divided into two groups: exploratory and conclusive. Exploratory research, according to its name merely aims to explore specific aspects of the research area and does not aim to provide final and conclusive answers to research questions. In exploratory research the researcher may even change the direction of the study to a certain extent, however not fundamentally, according to new evidences gained during the research process.

The following table illustrates the main differences between exploratory and conclusive research in relation to important components of the dissertation.

Research project components Exploratory research Conclusive research
Research purpose General: to generate insights about a situation Specific: to verify insights and aid in selecting a course of action
Data needs Vague Clear
Data sources Ill defined Well defined
Data collection form Open-ended, rough Usually structured
Sample Relatively small; subjectively selected to maximize generalization of insights Relatively large; objectively selected to permit generalization of findings
Data collection Flexible; no set procedure Rigid; well-laid-out procedure
Data analysis Informal; typically non-quantitative Formal; typically quantitative
Inferences/recommendations More tentative than final More final than tentative

Table 1 Major differences between exploratory and conclusive research design

Source: Pride and Ferrell (2007)


The following can be mentioned as examples with exploratory design as research findings are not final and conclusive evidences to research questions:

  • A study into advantages and disadvantages of various entry strategies to Chinese market
  • A critical analysis of argument of mandatory CSR for UK private sector organisations
  • A study into contradictions between CSR program and initiatives and business practices: a case study of Philip Morris USA
  • An investigation into the ways of customer relationship management in mobile marketing environment

Studies listed above do not aim to generate final and conclusive evidences to research questions. These studies merely aim to explore their respective research areas.


Conclusive research can be divided into two categories: descriptive and causal. Descriptive research design, as the name suggests, describes specific elements, causes, or phenomena in the research area.


Research title Focus of description
Born or bred: revising The Great Man theory of leadership in the 21st century


The Great Man theory
Creativity as the main trait for modern leaders: a critical analysis Creativity
Critical analysis into the role of CSR as an effective marketing tool


Critical analysis of the use of social media as a marketing strategy: a case study of Burger King UK Social media

Table 2 Examples for descriptive research design


Causal research design, on the other hand, is conducted to study cause-and-effect relationships.  Table 3 below illustrates some examples for studies with causal research design


Research title Cause Effect
The role of globalization into the emergence of global economic and financial crisis of 2007-2009 Globalization Global economic and financial crisis of 2007-2009


Impacts of CSR programs and initiatives on brand image: a case study of Coca-Cola Company UK. CSR programs and initiatives Coca Cola brand image
A critical analysis into the emergence of global culture and its implications in local companies in the USA Global culture US companies
Effects of organisational culture on achieving its aims and objectives: a case study of Virgin Atlantic Organizational culture Virgin Atlantic performance

Table 3 Examples for studies with causal design


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John Dudovskiy