All business students are assigned to conduct SWOT analysis, usually at the earlier stages of their studies. This page focuses on the application of SWOT analysis in a business context as a part of academic assignment. This is a comprehensive SWOT resource and it contains an explanation of SWOT theory, an illustration of how to do a SWOT analysis and links to examples of SWOT analysis of major multinational brands. Moreover, SWOT analysis template further below can be used to generate SWOT tables of more than 100 multinational companies along a range of industries.
SWOT is a strategic analytical tool for assessing strengths and weaknesses of a business, analyzing opportunities available to the business, as well as, threats faced by the business. SWOT analysis can be used at organizational and personal levels.
As it is illustrated below, strengths and weaknesses are internal, i.e. businesses are able to influence and to manipulate with their strengths and weaknesses. Opportunities and threats, on the other hand, are external, meaning that businesses can only react to opportunities and threats and businesses do not have tools to influence opportunities and threats.
|Internal||Strengths: attributes, characteristics and factors that give competitive advantage to the businessFor example, considerable brand value of the business, cash reserves, first mover advantage and exclusive access to unique resources are major strengths that contribute to competitive advantage of the business.|
|Weaknesses: attributes, characteristics and factors that weaken competitiveness of the business in the marketplace.A history of defective products, presence of huge debts and high employee turnover are examples of major weaknesses that a company may have.|
|External||Opportunities: favorable situations and factors that can strengthen competitive advantage of the business or provide the business with new sources of competitive advantageThe list of major opportunities for a business may include new product development, finding new customer segment for existing products, opportunities for further cost reductions thanks to creativity and technological innovations and others.|
|Threats: unfavorable situations and factors that could create problems for the business compromising its competitive advantage to a certain extent.The most noteworthy threats faced by businesses include, but not limited to the loss of key members of workforce, Increase in the prices of raw resources, patent infringement and other lawsuits against the company and others.|
SWOT analysis has important practical implications. Specifically, with findings of SWOT analysis in their hands, the senior level management identify and built upon their strengths, discover new opportunities and work upon eliminating or minimising threats to the business. Accordingly, SWOT can be a powerful aid for senior level management to develop appropriate strategy for the business.
The majority of sources explaining SWOT analysis assume that their audience is businesses aiming to improve their operational efficiency. This portal, on the contrary, explains SWOT analysis assuming that you a business student and you have been assigned to conduct SWOT analysis as a part of your assignment.
You can conduct a SWOT analysis on the basis of the following four steps:
Step 1: Selection of the company
If your assignment requires conducting a SWOT analysis, you are either given a case study company by your educational institution or you are free to analyze a company of your choice. In the first scenario, you have no option but to conduct a SWOT analysis of the company named in your assignment instructions. However, the majority of educational institutions grant students the flexibility to conduct SWOT analysis of a company of their choice.
Students are often tempted to conduct SWOT analysis of their employer. Choosing your employer as a case study can be a good strategy if you have an access to detailed relevant information. Please note that only descriptive information would not suffice and you will have to justify your arguments by referring to relevant quantitative data. Therefore, if you are not able to find relevant quantitative data about your employer or you do not have an employer or you do not want to analyze your employer for whatever reason, your best choice could be to conduct SWOT analysis of a multinational enterprise. This is due to the availability of data about the majority multinational enterprises. This portal offers up-to-date sample SWOT analyses of the most famous multinational enterprises as part of company reports.
Step 2: Finding information
If you are conducting a SWOT analysis of a small or medium sized organization such as your employer, family business or a company you are related to in some ways, approaching the company directly may prove to be an efficient strategy to obtain required information. You may try to secure a meeting with a senior level manager and explain practical implications of your SWOT analysis for the business. In other words, you may be able to convince a senior manager that results of your SWOT analysis may provide an important insight into the business and managers can act upon this knowledge to increase the efficiency of the business at various fronts.
Alternatively, if you are conducting SWOT analysis of a multinational enterprise, company annual report is usually the most comprehensive source of the relevant information. Note that annual reports highlight information about strengths of the business within the first few pages and you cannot find information about weaknesses of a company in its annual report for obvious reasons.
Information about Strengths in SWOT Analysis
Information about strengths of the company is easiest to find in your SWOT analysis. Strengths are competitive advantages of the business that made it successful in the first place. In case of small or medium sized organizations, the manager you are interviewing will be happy to discuss the strengths of the business.
In case of multinational companies, on the other hand, the first few pages of annual reports boast about competitive advantages of the business by referring to specific figures and charts. Using some of these charts in your assignment and properly referencing the source is going to increase the quality of your work.
The following table illustrates the major strengths possessed by business and tips about how to discuss these strengths in your swot analysis:
|Competitive prices||Mention this point if the company follows cost leadership business strategy|
|Perceived high quality of products and services||Mention this point of the company follows differentiation business strategy|
|Brand value of the business||Mention and discuss specific figure by referring to reliable source such as Forbes The Most Valuable Brands|
|Solid financial position||Mention the amount of revenues and profits generated by the business during the last financial year. Reference the interviewee (in case of small and medium businesses) or annual report (in case multinational businesses)|
|Focused brand portfolio||Discuss the point of focus of the brand. For example, PepsiCo has a large brand portfolio that focuses on drinks and snacks only.|
|First mover advantage||Discuss the benefits of first mover advantage|
|Leadership position in the market||Mention and discuss the market share of the company in the local or global marketplace|
|Access to unique resources||Discuss specific resources and their importance in terms of gaining competitive advantage|
|High level of consumer loyalty||If possible mention statistical data such as the number of consumers, the percentage of repeat purchases etc. by referring to reliable sources|
|Efficient leadership by a charismatic CEO||Briefly discuss specific achievements and personal qualities of the CEO|
|Benefits from the economies of scale||Use statistical data from reliable sources to illustrate the extent of benefits derived from the economies of scale|
|Strong patent portfolio||Mention the names of the most important patents and respective dates|
|Positive reputation for conducting ethical business||Briefly mention specific CSR policies, programs and initiatives that earned the company reputation as an ethical business|
|Organizational culture based on innovation and creativity||Discuss important aspects of organizational culture and ways in which these aspects increase competitiveness of the business|
|Convenient location of the business||Discuss the patterns of location of the business and its importance|
Information about Weaknesses in SWOT Analysis
It may not be easy to find information about weaknesses of small and medium sized businesses. The manager you are interviewing may not want to discuss weaknesses of their business either intentionally, or they may not be aware of weaknesses. It is important for you to motivate your interviewee to discuss weaknesses of their company by asking relevant questions in a polite way.
It is easier with multinational organizations. An extensive online research can reveal relevant information about weaknesses associated with the company you are analyzing.The majority of big corporations have been involved in some kind of scandals during the past two years and you can discuss the damage of these scandals to the brand image as noteworthy weakness of the company.
For example, suppose you have chosen Coca Cola Company for your SWOT analysis assignment. If you google the term ‘Coca Cola scandal’, search results on the top relate to a scandal where the company funded obesity research that downplayed the negative health implications of Coca Cola products. Negative implications of this incident on Coca Cola brand image is brand’s weakness you can discuss in you SWOT analysis.
All arguments and numbers need to be referenced using referencing style imposed by your educational institution in an appropriate manner and preference has to be given to online journals and magazines over online discussion forums and personal blogs.
Major weaknesses of businesses and brief tips about discussing them in your assignment are illustrated in the following table:
|Weak or unsustainable competitive advantage||Mainly relates to companies pursuing cost leadership business strategy. Discuss the nature of competitive advantage and explain why it is unsustainable|
|High cost of products or services||Mainly relates to companies pursuing differentiation business strategy|
|Damage to brand image by CSR-related incidents||Refer to specific incidents mentioning relevant statistical data and do not forget to reference the data|
|Extensive dependence on a few suppliers||Name the suppliers and the type of resources supplied by them and discuss the bargaining power of suppliers|
|Presence of huge debts||Specify the amount of debts in numbers and reference to a reliable source|
|Ineffective cost structure||Discuss specific inefficiencies of company’s cost structure and their negative implications for the business|
|Unfocused product portfolio||Discuss the categories of company’s product portfolio, illustrating the lack of focus and its implications for the business|
|Gaps in capabilities of the company||Refer to specific gaps such as lack of new product development capabilities, absence of online sales channel and others.|
|Low employee morale and commitment||Specify the main reasons for low employee morale and commitment such as low wages and autocratic management style and discuss their negative implications for the business|
|History of product recalls||Refer to specific product names and models, mention dates and numbers recalled discuss the damage of the incident to the brand image|
|Difficulties with the access to distribution channels||Explain the nature of difficulties, their causes and implications|
|Business model can be easily replicated by competitors||Discuss the weakness of competitive advantage and its vulnerability for replication by competitors|
|High employee turnover||Discuss the reasons for high employee turnover and its negative implications for the business for short-term and long-term perspectives|
Information about Opportunities in SWOT Analysis
Information about opportunities available to the business can be derived from its weaknesses in a way that businesses often have an opportunity to turn their weaknesses into strengths. At the same time, it is important that your SWOT analysis also identifies a set of opportunities that are not related to the weaknesses.If you can’t think of any company-specific opportunities, you can discuss business opportunities that can be explored by any business in general, such as new product development, international market expansion and increasing the level of effectiveness of social media marketing.
The following table illustrates the major opportunities available for businesses and tips about how to discuss these opportunities in your SWOT analysis:
|Opportunities for further cost reductions||This can be achieved thanks to creativity and innovations and other measures|
|New product development||Refer to new product categories and specific products justify your argument by discussing the demand for them|
|International market expansion with the focus on emerging economies||Discuss the ways in which establishing presence or increasing presence in emerging economies such as China and India is going to benefit the company in long-term perspective|
|Finding and exploiting new sources of competitive advantage||Be specific in highlighting new potential sources of competitive advantage taking into account industry-specific and company-specific factors|
|Increasing the effectiveness of social media marketing||Refer to contemporary social media marketing practices that are not currently utilized by the company and discuss potential benefits of their utilization|
|Engaging in mergers and acquisitions||Discuss potential target companies for mergers and acquisitions and explain potential benefits|
|Formation of strategic alliances||Explain target companies for strategic alliances, discuss the nature of alliances and potential benefits|
|Finding new customer segment||Specify the potential customer segment by referring to geographic, demographic, behavioural and psychographic bases of segmentation|
|Increasing operational effectiveness via investing in technology||Discuss specific types of technologies that can contribute to the operational effectiveness of the business|
|Emergence of competitor vulnerabilities||Explain specific types of competitor vulnerabilities and ways in which they can benefit the case study company|
Information about Threats in SWOT Analysis
Threats faced by the business can be classified into two categories. Firstly, there are company-specific threats that stem from company-specific factors such as the threat of losing market share due to ineffective cost structure or the threat of negative media coverage and damage to the brand image due to neglecting the importance of corporate social responsibility. Secondly, there are threats to the industry or to the economy on the whole, such as a threat of introducing tariffs to a certain range of products or the threat of a global economic and financial crisis. You will need to find information about threats belonging to both categories with more emphasis on the threats from the first category, i.e. company-specific threats.
Main threat facing the majority of businesses and brief tips about discussing them in your SWOT analysis are illustrated in the following table:
|Decline in the quality of service due to the further pursuit of cost reduction||This threat relates to businesses pursuing cost leadership business strategy. Refer to the latest cost reduction initiatives introduced by the company|
|Emergence of new competitors with access to cheaper resources||Mention resources critical to the business and explain how competitors can potentially acquire these resources for less prices|
|Emergence of substitute products and services||Refer to specific substitute products and services and discuss the level of their threat to company’s existing product portfolio|
|Increase in the rate of inflation||Discuss the potential negative effects of inflation on the volume of revenues by referring to the present and past rates of inflation|
|Changes in consumer tastes and preferences||Explain in which ways customer preferences may change by referring to social dynamics and discuss the negative implications of these changes to the business|
|Changes in currency exchange rate||Strengthening home country currency decreases the amount of reported profits from international sales. Illustrate this for the company of your choice by referring to specific numbers from official sources|
|Increase in the prices of raw resources||Mention the most critical resources for the business and illustrate how increase of their prices decreases the amount of profits|
|Introduction of trade barriers||Refer to major international markets for the company and illustrate potential negative implications for the business, if trade barriers are introduced|
|Inability to sustain competitive advantage||Refer to major competitive advantages for the business and explain why the company may not be able to sustain them in the long-term perspective|
|Patent infringement and other lawsuits against the company||Refer to previous patent infringement incidents the company was involved (if were are any) and discuss relevant risks in the future|
|Loss of key members of workforce||Refer to key members of the company, their contribution to company’s success and potential negative implications of their departure from the business.|
|Emergence of CSR-related scandals||Refer to past CSR scandals faced by the company and discuss the risks of future scandals and their implications|
|Natural disasters||Natural disasters such as earthquakes and flooding are generic threats for all businesses. You can discuss this point when you have already discussed all other threats, but still didn’t reach the required wordcount|
|Risk of a financial crisis||Another generic threat that can be applied towards many businesses pursuing differentiation business strategy|
Step 3: Writing
You can structure your writing in the following way:
Firstly,you will need to discuss the company profile, its strategy and the most recent changes that have taken place in the company prior to presenting your SWOT analysis. The length of such a discussion depends on your assignment instructions and the total word count for your assignment.
Secondly, you can develop a table containing four sections headed strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of your chosen company can be presented in bullet points under respective boxes. This can be followed by more detailed discussions of bullet points ideally using statistical data and referencing the data.
This portal contains example SWOT analysis of the following companies:
- Alphabet Inc. (Google)
- Amazon.com Inc.
- Apple Inc.
- BMW Group
- British Airways
- Caffe Nero
- Coca Cola Company
- Dell Inc.
- eBay Inc.
- Facebook Inc.
- Gap Inc.
- Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc.
- Jamie’s Italian Sydney
- John Lewis
- IKEA Group
- Longleat Safari Park
- Marks & Spencer
- McDonald’s Corporation
- Microsoft Corporation
- Oracle Corporation
- PepsiCo Inc.
- Red Bull GmbH
- Samsung Electronics
- Starbucks Corporation
- Tesco PLC
- Thorpe Park
- Toyota Motor Corporation
- Wal-Mart Stores Inc.
- Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc.
If the company you want to analyze is not listed above, you can use the following SWOT Analysis Template in order to generate the SWOT table.
Please choose an industry and a company below to generate a SWOT table containing bullet points of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of your chosen company. In order to complete the SWOT analysis you will need to expand the bullet points into a couple of paragraphs with discussions and references from reliable sources to support your arguments.