Phenomenology studies focus on experiences, events and occurrences with disregard or minimum regard for the external and physical reality. In other words, in phenomenology studies ideas are generated from rich amount of data by the means of induction and human interests, as well as stakeholder perspective may have their reflection on the study. A study that attempts to assess the impact of leadership style on employee motivation in an organization via conducting in-depth interviews with employees is a relevant example for research with a phenomenology philosophy.
Advantages associated with phenomenology include better understanding of meanings attached by people and its contribution to the development of new theories.Its disadvantages include difficulties with analysis and interpretation, usually lower levels of validity and reliability compared to positivism, and more time and other resources required for data collection.
The main advantages and disadvantages associated with positivism and phenomenology are summarized on the following table by Armstrong (2010) as taken from Easterby-Smith et al (1991).
|Wide coverage of the range of situations||Methods tend to be flexible and artificial|
|Can be fast and economical||Not very effective in understanding processes or the significance people attach to actions|
|May be relevant to policy decisions when statistics are exaggerated in large samples||Not very helpful in generating theories|
|Because it focuses on what is or what has been recently, it makes it hard for policy makers to infer what actions should take place in the future|
|Can look at change processes over time||Data gathering can take up a great deal of time and resources|
|Help to understand people’s meanings||The analysis and interpretation of data may be difficult|
|Help to adjust to new issues and ideas as they emerge||May be harder than positivist approach to control pace, progress and end points|
|Contribute to the development of new theories||Policy-makers may give low credibility to a phenomenological study|
|Gather data which is seen as natural rather than artificial|
Source: Armstrong (2010), as taken from Easterby-Smith et al (1991)
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